Influence factors and control of edible vegetable oil processing quality

Technology News 2024-04-12 15:29:40

With the development of China's market economy and the improvement of people's living standards, the demand for edible vegetable oils continues to increase, and the quality and safety of edible vegetable oils have also attracted the attention of consumers. In the actual processing of edible vegetable oils, there are many factors that affect the processing quality of edible vegetable oils, such as oil storage, production and processing, and enterprise quality management. Based on the actual production of edible vegetable oil, this article analyzes the factors affecting the processing quality of edible vegetable oil, and proposes control measures for the processing quality of edible vegetable oil for readers' reference.

1. Analysis of factors affecting the quality of edible vegetable oil

1.1 Raw materials

Raw materials are the most important part of quality control in the production and processing of edible vegetable oil, and the quality of raw materials directly affects the quality of the final product. The main problems of edible vegetable oil in terms of raw materials are: (1) The raw material purchase verification is not in place. The raw materials used in the production and processing of edible vegetable oil are affected by soil, air, irrigation water, etc., and may contain heavy metal pollutants such as mercury, cadmium, lead, etc., as well as organic pollutants such as dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Chlorinated biphenyls and so on. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides in the cultivation process can easily lead to excessive residues of oily pesticides and biotoxins. In addition, oil has some mechanical impurities during harvesting and primary processing. These factors will bury hidden quality problems for the production and processing of edible vegetable oil. The "National Food Safety Standard Limits of Mycotoxins in Foods" (GB 2761-2017) sets the limits for aflatoxins, including peanut oil and corn oil at 20 μg/kg, and other vegetable oils at 10 μg/kg; “National Food Safety Standards” The Limit of Contaminants in Food (GB 2762-2017) has a limit of 0.1 mg/kg for total arsenic and 0.1 mg/kg for lead. It is especially necessary for the quality of raw materials to be inspected in accordance with relevant standards when entering the factory. According to the requirements of the "National Food Safety Standard and General Hygiene Code for Food Production" (GB 14881-2013), the purchase of food raw materials should check the product quality certification documents, which cannot be provided The food raw materials of the qualification certificate shall be inspected in accordance with the food safety standards, and the food raw materials must be checked and accepted before they can be used. In reality, some companies have not strictly inspected the quality certification documents of raw materials, nor have they conducted inspections in accordance with food safety standards; some have checked the quality certification documents, but due to the quality knowledge of the inspectors, the quality certification documents marked The batch does not correspond to the batch of the purchased raw material, which is an invalid quality certificate; when the raw material is inspected, due to the knowledge level of the enterprise equipment and the inspectors, the inspection items are incomplete and the inspection results are inaccurate; the enterprises without inspection conditions take into account the cost It does not entrust a qualified inspection agency to conduct inspections. (2) The storage of raw materials does not meet the requirements. Improper storage of oil will cause mildew and deterioration, resulting in low oil yield, increased acid value, and poor oil quality. The processed oil will have a deep color and smell. The raw materials must be stored in the factory under strict control of storage conditions. According to the requirements of the "National Food Safety Standard for the Production of Edible Vegetable Oil and its Products" (GB 8955-2016), the raw materials must be stored in categories, stored off the ground and off the wall, and the warehouse is ventilated and pest-proof. , Anti-rodent measures, the silos and storage tanks of bulk raw materials should be stored according to different varieties and different quality levels. During storage, temperature, moisture, and pests should be inspected and recorded, and kept away from harmful environments. In actual production, especially in some small and medium-sized enterprises, the storage of raw materials is chaotic and the classified storage fails to meet the requirements. For example, the warehouse does not have ventilation facilities, and the temperature and moisture control facilities are not in place. Natural ventilation is used for natural storage, and there is no regular inspection and recording. (3) Insufficient quality inspection measures for raw materials entering the factory.

2. Measures to improve the quality of edible vegetable oil

2.1 Strictly control the quality of raw materials

Food raw materials must be qualified in batches when entering the factory. Check the quality certificate of incoming raw materials, and ensure that the batches inspected in the quality certificate documents correspond to the actual purchased batches; if there is no certificate of conformity, they must carry out self-inspection or entrust a qualified inspection agency to inspect and test items. It should be the factory inspection items specified in the raw material standards; the labeling and marking of the raw materials meet the requirements, and the raw materials entering the factory must record various information and quality conditions of the purchase channels to ensure that the quality of the raw materials of each batch and specification can be traced. The storage conditions of the raw materials meet the specified requirements, classified and tiered, and separated and stored separately; the storage temperature, ventilation, and insect (rat) prevention measures meet the standards; the storage of raw materials should be stored in accordance with the principle of first-in, first-out to avoid excessive storage of raw materials; raw material storage During the period of regular inspections and records, to prevent mildew, germination, insect infestation and pollution, improve the company's own quality inspection system, inspection equipment, the professional level of the inspectors meet the needs of food safety.

2.2 Strengthen the control of the production and processing process

Strengthening the control of the production and processing process is the key to ensuring product quality. The following points should be done: (1) Strengthen the pretreatment of oil. The cleaning process should be based on the characteristics of the oil, select the appropriate winnowing and screening, according to the density difference of the oil and impurities, select the winnowing equipment and wind speed, and select the screening equipment and method according to the difference in the size of the oil and impurities. It is necessary to improve equipment and facilities for peeling, crushing, rolling, steaming and frying, and formulate specific processing standards to ensure the quality of each link. (2) Strengthen the control of oil refining and scientifically formulate key control points for the refining of edible vegetable oils. The key control points of common edible vegetable oil: oil refining is deacidification and deodorization; sesame oil produced by water substitution method is the temperature of frying seeds and the oil is stirred; olive oil is selected as raw material and cold pressed at low temperature; palm (kernel) oil is the separation process. At the same time, enterprises must add more important control links in accordance with the characteristics of the products and equipment conditions to ensure the effective control of each process in the processing and production. The operating instructions for each process point, especially the key control point, must be scientifically formulated based on the control principle of its control point and the influencing factors of the control point. For example, in the process of alkali refining and deacidification of fats, free fatty acids, glycerides and alkalis in fats and oils undergo a series of chemical reactions, among which the main chemical reactions are neutralization, hydrolysis, saponification, etc. The main influencing factors are alkali and its dosage, alkali Liquid concentration, operating temperature, operating time, mixing and stirring, impurity content, and separation, washing and drying. The content of the work instruction must be comprehensive and without omissions, and the integrity of the process operation can be guaranteed to ensure the quality of the work. Specific production operators must have comprehensive professional knowledge, proficient operating skills, and a sense of responsibility; the key control point record data must be accurate and comprehensive, so that product quality can be traced, and it is convenient for continuous improvement and improvement of production technology.

2.3 Standardize the layout of processing workshops and equipment facilities

The edible vegetable oil processing enterprises should rationally arrange the production and processing workshops according to the varieties and characteristics of the edible vegetable oils, with smooth processes, separate flow of people and logistics; independent filling workshops, closed filling, complete hand washing facilities in the dressing room, and special work clothes. , Work clothes and other clothing and articles are stored separately to avoid cross-contamination; equipment and facilities are regularly maintained and updated in a timely manner to ensure stable operation of equipment and facilities and reliable and accurate parameters.

3 conclusion

To improve the quality of edible vegetable oil, it is necessary to have the source of quality and safety, the scientific production level, the sound quality management system and the improvement of the overall quality of staff. Raw material qualification is the premise to ensure product quality, strict control of the process is the key to ensure quality, a sound quality management system and staff safety awareness and quality improvement is the guarantee of quality and safety.

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